心理研究:有多少校园霸凌的施暴者,其实也是受害者?

Those Highly Suicidal

Are Bullies but also Victims

扮演施暴者和受害者双重身份的人

自杀和自我伤害的机率最高


壹心理翻译社 ◎ 荣誉出品
原作 | Anne Kavanagh, Naomi Priest, Tania King
翻译 | 宋艾米;校编 | 搬那度

Most research into teen bullying tends to focus only on the victim. This means we know little about how the bully is affected.


大多数针对青少年霸凌行为的研究只倾向于关注受害者。这意味着,我们对施暴者所受到的影响知之甚少。


A new Australian study shows that teenagers who have been both a victim and a bully are at greatest risk of mental health problems, including self-harm and suicidal thoughts.

澳大利亚一项新的研究表明:既是受害者又是施暴者的青少年产生心理健康问题的风险最大,这其中包括自伤行为和自杀念头。


– 01 –

Bullies are victims too

施暴者同样也是受害者

When it comes to bullying, there is a common misconception that adolescents neatly fall into a category of bully, victim, or not involved. But this is not the case.

人们对于霸凌行为的一个常见误解,就是所有青少年可以明确地划分为三类:施暴者、受害者、未卷入霸凌事件者。可是,实际情况却并非如此。

In fact, three-quarters of the adolescents who reported that they had bullied others were also victims of bullying.

事实上,承认自己有过霸凌行为的青少年中,有四分之三同样也是霸凌行为的受害者。

The study asked 3,500 14-to-15-year-old Australian teenagers – who were participants in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) – whether they had experienced any of 13 different types of bullying behaviour in the past month. This included being hit or kicked on purpose, called names, or forced to do something they didn’t want to do.

我们的这项研究,对 3,500 名参加过《澳洲儿童纵向研究》项目的 14-15 岁澳洲青少年进行了调查,问他们在过去的一个月内是否遭过 13 种不同的霸凌行为。这些行为包括:被别人蓄意拳打脚踢、辱骂、胁迫等。

The participants were asked if they had bullied anyone in the last month using the same bullying behaviours.

参与调查的孩子还被问及,在过去一个月内是否用同样的行为欺侮过他人。

LSAC also included questions about whether teenagers had self-harmed, had suicidal thoughts, and whether they had made a plan to attempt suicide.

《澳洲儿童纵向研究》项目也包含了一系列关于被测青少年是否有过自伤行为、是否产生过自杀念头、是否曾经计划自杀过等问题。

One-third of teenagers reported that they had either bullied, been a victim of bullying, or both (bully-victim).


三分之一的青少年称,他们欺侮过别人、或者曾是受害者,或者两者都是(“施暴兼受害者”)。

On the whole, all three groups were more likely to report self-harm, suicidal thoughts and a plan for suicide than those who were not involved in bullying.

总体而言,这三组青少年比其他没被卷入霸凌事件的青少年更可能称自己有过自伤行为、曾产生过自杀念头、或者曾计划自杀过。

Among bullies only, one in ten had self-harmed and one in eight had thought about suicide in the past year.

在施暴者中,十分之一的青少年有过自伤行为,而八分之一的青少年在过去一年中曾经过考虑过自杀。

Teenagers who were both the bully and the victim of bullying had the highest levels of self-harm (20%) and suicidal thoughts (20%).

身为施暴兼受害者的青少年最有可能发生自伤行为(20%)和产生自杀念头(20%)。

Involvement in bullying was associated with two times the risk of self-harm and four times the risk of suicidal thoughts. This was the case even after taking into account other factors that might explain the findings, such as gender, single parent versus couple household, ethnicity and socio-economic status.

卷入霸凌事件的孩子发生自伤行为的风险是没有卷入的孩子的两倍,产生自杀念头的风险则为四倍即便考虑了可能解释此研究发现的其他因素,如性别、单亲家庭对比双亲家庭、种族、社会经济地位等,结果也是如此。

– 02 –

Girls more likely to be affected

女孩更容易受影响

Suicidal thoughts and self-harm were highest among girls involved in bullying.

卷入霸凌事件的女孩最容易产生自杀念头,也最容易发生自伤行为。

More than one in three girls who were both the bully and the victim self-harmed (35%) and one in four had suicidal thoughts (26%).

身为施暴兼受害者的女孩中,超过三分之一(35%)曾经有过自伤行为;约四分之一(26%)曾产生过自杀念头。

The levels among boys who were bully-victims were 11% and 16% respectively.

而在男生施暴兼受害者群体中,自伤行为和自杀念头的发生率较低,分别是 11% 和 16%。

However, even among teenagers not involved in bullying, self-harm or having suicidal thoughts were more common among girls than boys.

然而,即便在没有卷入霸凌事件的青少年中,女生的自伤行为或自杀念头的发生率也明显高于男生。


There were also gender differences in roles in bullying. Of those who were only victims 58% were girls, while 69% of those who were only a bully were male.

青少年在霸凌事件中扮演的角色,也因性别而存在差异。受害者群体中,女生占 58%;而施暴者群体中,男生占 69%。

However, this is not the complete story. Boys represented a higher proportion of those who had a dual role as both a victim and a bully (61%).

然而,这只是片面观察而已:在有着受害者和施暴者双重身份的青少年中,男生占较高比例(61%)。


– 03 –

Who bullies?

哪些人容易有施暴倾向?

While we don’t know why teenagers bully, other research suggests that children who bully are more likely to exhibit “externalising behaviours”.


虽然我们不知道青少年为何会霸凌他人,但是其他研究表明,施暴的青少年比较会表现出 “外部化行为”。


These are defined as: defiant, aggressive, disruptive and non-compliant behaviour.


所谓 “外部化行为”,指的是 “叛逆、具侵犯性、具破坏性和不服从的行为”。

They were also more likely to have:

这些青少年可能还有如下特征:


  • negative thoughts, beliefs and attitudes about themselves and others.
    对自己和别人抱有消极的想法、信念和态度。

  • been negatively influenced by peers.
    曾经受到同龄孩子的负面影响。

  • lived in families where there were problems such as parental conflict.
    生长在有问题的家庭中,如父母关系不合。


– 04 –

What can be done?

我们可以做些什么?

Our research highlights the fact that bullying interventions must recognise the often complex nature of bullying, and particularly the multiple roles that individuals may adopt.

我们的研究强调,有效的霸凌干预措施必须认清霸凌行为的复杂性质,尤其要注意到卷入霸凌事件的青少年可能扮演的多重角色。

Targeting victims of bullying only may miss opportunities to have a broader impact on bullying.

要是只对受害者进行干预,也许就会让我们错失良机,难以对霸凌现象进行更加全面有效的干预。

Reducing bullying requires a multifaceted approach focusing on individuals involved, parents, teacher and school climate.

如果要减少霸凌事件的发生,就需要多管齐下,重心放在被卷入霸凌事件的孩子、家长、老师和学校氛围上。


Based on the results of multiple studies, it is estimated that school-based interventions can reduce bullying behaviour by around 20%.


根据多项研究的结果,校本干预方案估计可以将霸凌事件的发生率降低约 20%


Extrapolating from our findings, this would lead to an 11% reduction in the proportion of students who self-harm or have suicidal thoughts.

从我们的研究发现中推测,校园霸凌事件的减少可以将发生自伤行为和自杀念头的学生比率降低 11%

Some studies have shown that whole-of-school interventions that target school-wide rules and sanctions, teacher training, classroom curriculum, conflict-resolution training, and individual counselling yield better results than those that target only one component.


一些研究已经表明,着眼于学校规则、惩戒措施、教师培训、课堂教学课程、冲突解决训练、个体咨询辅导等方面的学校整体干预方案,效果要明显好于只针对单一方面的干预措施。


One of the other problems is that while school-based interventions may reduce bullying behaviour in the short term, the evidence for long-term behaviour change is limited.

但另一个问题是,虽然校本干预方案会在短期内减少霸凌行为的发生,但只有有限的证据表明它对霸凌行为有任何长期转变作用。



英文原作:Teenagers who are both bully and victim are more likely to have suicidal thoughts (The Conversation)
作者简介:Anne Kavanagh,澳大利亚墨尔本大学健康权益中心、性别和女性健康部门教授兼主任。Naomi Priest,澳大利亚国立大学社会研究与方法中心研究员。Tania King,澳大利亚墨尔本大学研究员。
译者简介:宋艾米,心理咨询师,家庭治疗师,心理公众号签约撰稿人。
© 本译文由壹心理翻译社译员与壹心理联合原创首发,供交流学习之用,文中内容不代表壹心理或译者立场。未经允许,不得转载。

You May Also Like

About the Author: 成长心理专家

发表评论